Document Type : Review Article
USP- Interunidades Bioengineering (EESC/ FMRP/ IQSC), Neurocognitive Engineering Lab, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Instituto Ganz Sanchez, São Paulo, Brazil.
Individuals suffering from tinnitus frequently report sleep disturbances. The most common sleep-related complaint among tinnitus patients, insomnia, may even remain unresolved despite adequate and specific treatments of tinnitus. The more severe the tinnitus, the more patients report impaired sleep. Given the fact that sleep disorders potentially affect physical and mental health, patients with tinnitus would require a special diagnostic and therapeutic care. Subjective (sleep questionnaires and self-rated psychometric evaluations) and objective (polysomnographic recording) assessments in Sleep-Disturbed Tinnitus Patients (SDTPs) have similar parameters compared to subjects with insomnia. However, as the elderly subjects have higher prevalence of organic sleep disorders, special care is needed regarding the differential diagnostic measures. Treatment of insomnia in SDTPs is commonly based on the use of hypnotics, with or without insomnia-specific psychotherapy. Similarly, cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia is shown to ameliorate both insomnia and tinnitus. This review article discusses sleep and insomnia based on a recently-proposed neurofunctional tinnitus model.