Research Paper: Quantitative Electroencephalogram-Informed Geometric Meditation: A Pilot Validation Study

Document Type : Original Articles


1 Social and Individual Stress Reduction Association, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Fars Meditation Academy, Shiraz, Iran.

3 Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.



Objectives: The emerging neuroscience literature has provided some evidence that meditation may have measurable effects on the electrophysiological parameters in the nervous system. We hypothesized that a novel geometric meditation approach comprising Geometric Somatic-Breathing Based (GSBB) and Geometric Introspective Based (GIB) meditation yield favorable electrophysiological changes at brain’s cortical level and autonomic nervous system upon deep meditative experience. Materials & Methods: A multi-sensor digital sampling setup, including Electroencephalography (EEG), Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was used to obtain data and compare meditation and baseline epochs from 3 long-term geometric meditators. Results: The analysis revealed a notable change in autonomic nervous response, including Root Mean Square of Successive Differences (RMSSD) in Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as well as GSR and Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG) correlates across 10 practiced techniques in training and post-training as compared to the baseline state. Conclusion: Such findings may serve as a pilot validation dataset to pursue further research on quantitative EEG-guided geometric meditation approach.


  1. Klein P, Picard G, Baumgarden J, Schneider R. Meditative movement, energetic, and physical analyses of three qigong exercises: Unification of Eastern and Western mechanistic exercise theory. Medicines. 2017; 4(4):69. doi: 10.3390/medicines4040069
  2. Satsangi AK, Brugnoli MP. Anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms in palliative care: from neuro-psychobiological response to stress, to symptoms’ management with clinical hypnosis and meditative states. Annals of Palliative Medicine. 2017; 6:701. doi:
  3. Sperduti M, Makowski D, Blonde P, Piolino P. Meditation and successful aging: Can meditative practices counteract age-related cognitive decline. Geriatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement. 2017; 15(2):205-13. doi: 10.1684/pnv.2017.0672
  4. Payne P, Fiering S, Leiter JC, Zava DT, Crane Godreau MA. Effectiveness of a novel qigong meditative movement practice for impaired health in flight attendants exposed to second-hand cigarette smoke. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2017; 11: 67. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00067
  5. Achilefu A, Joshi K, Meier M, McCarthy LH. Yoga and other meditative movement therapies to reduce chronic pain. The Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association. 2017; 110(1):14-6.
  6. Acevedo BP, Pospos S, Lavretsky H. The neural mechanisms of meditative practices: Novel approaches for healthy aging. Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports. 2016; 3(4):328-39. doi: 10.1007/s40473-016-0098-x
  7. Lee WL, Sung HC, Liu SH, Chang SM. Meditative music listening to reduce state anxiety in patients during the uptake phase before Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans. The British Journal of Radiology. 2017; 90(1070):20160466. doi: 10.1259/bjr.20160466
  8. Sun J, Buys N. Effects of community singing program on mental health outcomes of Australian aboriginal and Torres strait islander people: A meditative approach. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2016; 30(4):259-63. doi: 10.1177/0890117116639573
  9. Loizzo JJ. The subtle body: An interoceptive map of central nervous system function and meditative mind–brain–body integration. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2016; 1373(1):78-95. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13065
  10. Rubin JB. Meditative psychoanalysis. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis. 2016; 76(1):54-70. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2015.59
  11. Nazaraghaei F. FG meditation as an objective and rational meditation style adaptable for stress management in contemporary era. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine. 2015; 5:112-3.
  12. Xu M, Purdon C, Seli P, Smilek D. Mindfulness and mind wandering: The protective effects of brief meditation in anxious individuals. Consciousness and Cognition. 2017; 51:157-65. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.03.009
  13. Wimmer L, Bellingrath S, Von Stockhausen L. Cognitive effects of mindfulness training: Results of a pilot study based on a theory driven approach. Frontiers in Psychology. 2016; 7:1037.
  14. Jensen CG, Lansner J, Petersen A, Vangkilde SA, Ringkøbing SP, Frokjaer VG, et al. Open and calm–a randomized controlled trial evaluating a public stress reduction program in Denmark. BMC Public Health. 2015; 15(1):1245. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2588-2
  15. Kozasa EH, Sato JR, Lacerda SS, Barreiros MA, Radvany J, Russell TA, et al. Meditation training increases brain efficiency in an attention task. Neuroimage. 2012; 59(1):745-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.088
  16. Nazaraghaie F, Torkamani F, Kiani B, Torab Nami M. EEG-guided meditative training through geometrical approach: An interim analysis. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine. 2015; 5(Suppl):146.