Possible Molecular Mechanisms for Paramecium Learning

Document Type : Hypothesis


1 Conscioustronics Foundation, Shiraz, Iran Student Research Committee, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Department of Parasitology,School of medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Learning is a cornerstone of intelligent behavior in animals. This behavior has been mostly studied in organisms with a fairly complex nervous system. However, recent reports of learning in unicellular organisms suggested the existence of associative learning in unicellular organisms. In particular, the capability to associate different light intensities with cathodal stimulation in paramecium is of special interest. We have investigated the previous reports on this phenomenon and proposed a molecular mechanism for learning behavior in paramecium. Specifically, we have used the existing evolutionary evidence in order to find the possible molecular pathways that may play a role in Paramecium’s learning. Moreover, previous studies have been reviewed in order to propose new experiments that can verify the plausibility of the present hypothesis


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