Theoretical Tinnitus Multimodality Framework: A Neurofunctional Model

Document Type : Hypothesis


1 Interunidades Bioengenharia (EESC/FMRP/IQSC), Universidade De São Paulo, São Carlos, SP, Brazil

2 USP-Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, Universidade De São Paulo, São Carlos, SP,

3 Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz

4 Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

5 Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shahid Beheshti Medical Sciences University, Tehran

6 University of São Paulo, Medical School, São Paulo


Our knowledge about subjective tinnitus physiopathology has improved in the last decades, while information to understand the main mechanisms that transform a neutral phantom sound to tinnitus distress appear to be inadequate. The current review presents evidence from several studies using neuroimaging, electrophysiology and brain lesion techniques aiming at hypothesizing a new realistic multimodality tinnitus framework which can better explain the structural and functional brain connectivity in different stages of tinnitus development. Further to the present work, a full review of the entire literature should be prompted to discuss evidence to more comprehensively investigate the relationship between structural and functional connectivity of tinnitus. Progresses in such framework will shed lights to the tinnitus neurofunctional model and further evidence-based treatment modalities. 


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