A comparative medical science is a branch of science that is responsible for research on human and animal medicine through the animal models. Although the history of animal use in empirical medical research goes back hundreds of years, the modern era is only a few decades old. An important part of the experimental medical research in Iran is based on the use of laboratory animal models. The importance of comparative medical evolution in terms of ethics and science requires that Iran to have a new look at this branch of science. Hence, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences has reviewed both the hardware and software aspects of this important issue, through a fundamental reform in comparative medicine by constructing a referral center for comparative and experimental medicine while at the same time it has established a comparative biomedical science discipline for Ph.D. degree. This new approach in the field of comparative medicine and comparative biomedical sciences will lead to dramatic scientific achievements.