The Effect of Movement Activities in Synchronization With Music on Motor Proficiency of Children With Autism
Objectives: Although social deficits are the main features of autism, children in autism spectrum disorder often too display difficulties with posture, coordination and motor planning. As such, poor motor skills are believed to be associated with greater difficulties in social communication. Some recent studies show that music can improve the sensory processing and motor functions by affecting brain connectivity. The present study aims to examine the effect of movement activities in synchronization with music on motor proficiency of 7 to 14 years old children with low functioning autism.
Materials & Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled trial design was used in this study. Twenty two subjects participated in the study and assigned into experimental and control groups randomly. The interventions consisted of movement activities with music for experimental group and without music for control group. Motor proficiency of subjects such as balance performance, bilateral coordination and upper limb coordination were assessed by trained independent evaluator before the treatment and also after 12th and 24th therapeutic sessions using 3 subtests of Bruininks- Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). The effect of interventions in two groups were compared by repeated measures ANOVA.
Results: The results indicated that both interventions improved motor performance in the participants but the effects of interventions on balance performance (P<0.001), bilateral coordination (P<0.05) and upper limb coordination (P<0.001) were significantly different between the two groups.
Conclusion: Movement therapy is beneficial for children with autism, but movement activities in synchronization with music can accelerate improvements in motor proficiency of these children.
Dziuk MA, Larson JCG, Apostu A, Mahone EM, Denckla MB, Mostofsky SH. Dyspraxia in autism: Association with motor, social, and communicative deficits. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2007; 49(10):734–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00734.x
Matson JL, Sturmey P. International handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Berlin: Springer; 2011.
Fournier KA, Hass CJ, Naik SK, Lodha N, Cauraugh JH. Motor coordination in autism spectrum disorders: A synthesis and meta-analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2010; 40(10):1227–40. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-0981-3.
Miyahara M, Tsujii M, Hori M, Nakanishi K, Kageyama H, Sugiyama T. Brief report: Motor incoordination in children with Asperger syndrome and learning disabilities. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 1997; 27(5):595-603. doi: 10.1023/a:1025834211548
Green D, Baird G, Barnett AL, Henderson L, Huber J, Henderson SE. The severity and nature of motor impairment in Asperger’s syndrome: A comparison with specific developmental disorder of motor function. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2002; 43(5):655-68. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00054
Manjiviona J, Prior M. Comparison of Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autistic children on a Test of Motor Impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 1995; 25(1):23–39. doi: 10.1007/bf02178165
Ghaziuddin M, Butler E. Clumsiness in autism and Asperger syndrome: A further report. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 1998; 42(1):43–8. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2788.1998.00065.x
Ghaziuddin M, Butler E, Tsai L, Ghaziuddin N. Is clumsiness a marker for Asperger syndrome? Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 1994; 38(5):519-27. PMID: 7841689
Gillberg C. Early symptoms in autism: Diagnosis and treatment of autism. Berlin: Springer; 1989.
Provost B, Lopez BR, Heimerl S. A comparison of motor delays in young children: Autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and developmental concerns. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2006; 37(2):321–8. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0170-6
Attwood T. Clinical issues: Social skills programs to teach friendship skills for children with asperger syndrome. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education. 2003; 10(3):16. doi: 10.1044/lle10.3.16.
Case-Smith J, Arbesman M. Evidence-based review of interventions for autism used in or of relevance to occupational therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2008; 62(4):416–29. doi: 10.5014/ajot.62.4.416
Sutera S, Pandey J, Esser EL, Rosenthal MA, Wilson LB, Barton M, et al. Predictors of optimal outcome in toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2007; 37(1):98–107. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0340-6
Matson JL. Clinical assessment and intervention for autism spectrum disorders. Massachusetts: Academic Press; 2011.
Heaton P. Pitch memory, labelling and disembedding in autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2003; 44(4):543-51. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00143
Thaut MH, Abiru M. Rhythmic auditory stimulation in rehabilitation of movement disorders: A review of current research. Music Perception. 2010; 27(4):263–9. doi: 10.1525/mp.2010.27.4.263
Bengtsson SL, Ullén F, Henrik Ehrsson H, Hashimoto T, Kito T, Naito E, et al. Listening to rhythms activates motor and premotor cortices. Cortex. 2009; 45(1):62–71. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2008.07.002
Kenyon GP, Thaut MH. A measure of kinematic limb instability modulation by rhythmic auditory stimulation. Journal of Biomechanics. 2000; 33(10):1319–23. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9290(00)00077-4
Bahrami H, Nejati V. [Comparing diagnostic ability of basic emotional states in children with high performance autism disorder with normal peers (Persian)]. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2012; 14(2):39-44.
Bhat AN, Landa RJ, Galloway JC. Current perspectives on motor functioning in infants, children, and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Physical Therapy. 2011; 91(7):1116–29. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20100294
Frego RD, Gillmeister G, Hama M, Liston RE. The dalcroze approach to music therapy. Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy. 2004:15-24.
Atigh A, Akbarfahimi M, Alizadeh M, Rad MM. [The effect of musical movement activities on the balance function of autistic children (Persian)]. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. 2013; 17(8):483-91.
Zachopoulou E, Tsapakidou A, Derri V. The effects of a developmentally appropriate music and movement program on motor performance. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2004; 19(4):631–42. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2004.10.005
Chawarska K, Klin A, Volkmar FR. Autism spectrum disorders in infants and toddlers: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; 2010.
Hardy MW, LaGasse AB. Rhythm, movement, and autism: Using rhythmic rehabilitation research as a model for autism. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience. 2013; 7. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2013.00019
Kwak EE. Effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Journal of Music Therapy. 2007; 44(3):198–216. doi: 10.1093/jmt/44.3.198
Duncan RP, Earhart GM. Randomized controlled trial of community-based dancing to modify disease progression in Parkinson disease. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2011; 26(2):132–43. doi: 10.1177/1545968311421614
Rodriguez-Fornells A, Rojo N, Amengual JL, Ripollés P, Altenmüller E, Münte TF. The involvement of audio-motor coupling in the music-supported therapy applied to stroke patients. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2012; 1252(1):282–93. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06425.x
Wan CY, Schlaug G. Music making as a tool for promoting brain plasticity across the life span. The Neuroscientist. 2010; 16(5):566–77. doi: 10.1177/1073858410377805
Hess KL, Morrier MJ, Heflin LJ, Ivey ML. Autism treatment survey: Services received by children with autism spectrum disorders in public school classrooms. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2007; 38(5):961–71. doi: 10.1007/s10803-007-0470-5
Luft AR, McCombe-Waller S, Whitall J, Forrester LW, Macko R, Sorkin JD, et al. Repetitivebilateral arm training and motor cortex activation in chronic stroke. JAMA. 2004; 292(15):1853-1861. doi: 10.1001/jama.292.15.1853.
Bradt J, Magee WL, Dileo C, Wheeler BL, McGilloway E. Music therapy for acquired brain injury. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd006787
De Dreu M, Van Der Wilk A, Poppe E, Kwakkel G, Van Wegen E. Rehabilitation, exercise therapy and music in patients with Parkinson’s disease: A meta-analysis of the effects of music-based movement therapy on walking ability, balance and quality of life. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. 2012; 18:S114-S9. doi: 10.1016/s1353-8020(11)70036-0
Thaut MH. Temporal entrainment of cognitive functions: musical mnemonics induce brain plasticity and oscillatory synchrony in neural networks underlying memory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2005; 1060(1):243–54. doi: 10.1196/annals.1360.017
Zatorre RJ, Chen JL, Penhune VB. When the brain plays music: auditory–motor interactions in music perception and production. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2007; 8(7):547–58. doi: 10.1038/nrn2152
Schlaug G, Altenmüller E, Thaut M. Music listening and music making in the treatment of neurological disorders and impairments. Music Perception. 2010; 27(4):249–50. doi: 10.1525/mp.2010.27.4.249
Habib M, Besson M. What do music training and musical experience teach us about brain plasticity? Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 2009; 26(3):279–85. doi: 10.1525/mp.2009.26.3.279
Fatemi SH, Aldinger KA, Ashwood P, Bauman ML, Blaha CD, Blatt GJ, et al. Consensus paper: Pathological role of the cerebellum in autism. The Cerebellum. 2012; 11(3):777–807. doi: 10.1007/s12311-012-0355-9
Thaut MH, Stephan KM, Wunderlich G, Schicks W, Tellmann L, Herzog H, et al. Distinct cortico-cerebellar activations in rhythmic auditory motor synchronization. Cortex. 2009; 45(1):44–53. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2007.09.009
Gonzalez J, Yu W. Multichannel audio aided dynamical perception for prosthetic hand biofeedback.Paper presented at: The International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics. 23-26 June 2009; Kyoto, Japan.
Bonnel A, Mottron L, Peretz I, Trudel M, Gallun E, Bonnel A-M. Enhanced pitch sensitivity in individuals with autism: A signal detection analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 2003; 15(2):226–35. doi: 10.1162/089892903321208169
Stanutz S, Wapnick J, Burack JA. Pitch discrimination and melodic memory in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism. 2012; 18(2):137–47. doi: 10.1177/1362361312462905
Lai G, Pantazatos SP, Schneider H, Hirsch J. Neural systems for speech and song in autism. Brain. 2012; 135(3):961–75. doi: 10.1093/brain/awr335
Khalaf-Beigi M, Akbarfahimi M, Ashayeri H, Dorood N, Doostdar H. The effect of music on attention in schizophrenia. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2012; 14(9):8-13.
Khalaf Beigi M, Akbar Fahimi M, Ashayeri H, Sheikh Mirfendereski T, Doostdar H. [The effect of musical activities on memory in patients with Schizophrenia (Persian)]. Koomesh. 2013, 14(2):158-65.
Khalaf Beigi M, Akbarfahimi M, Ashayeri H, Doostdar H. [The effect of musical activities on executive function in patients with schizophrenia (Persian)]. Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research. 2013; 11(2):120-9.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.